• California to create educating credential overlaying pre-Ok by way of third grade that requires literacy coaching
    Teaching

    California to create educating credential overlaying pre-Ok by way of third grade that requires literacy coaching

    Photograph by Allison Shelley/The Verbatim Company for EDUimages

    A preschool scholar exhibits his classmate a spider he constructed from pipe cleaners and a paper cup.

    The California Fee on Instructor Credentialing agreed this week to create a brand new educating credential for pre-kindergarten by way of third grade that may require instructor candidates to point out they’re skilled in the right way to train studying.

    The choice got here after the fee addressed criticisms {that a} separate credential that lacked  an identical literacy instruction coursework and a studying efficiency take a look at might undermine separate efforts to enhance studying instruction in elementary grades.

    The critics included two influential legislators who questioned whether or not the fee had the authority to determine an early childhood schooling educating credential – significantly one that would “sidestep” reforms to show foundational studying abilities. The fee tried to guarantee them that wouldn’t occur.

    Establishing an early childhood schooling credential has been talked about for years and was a suggestion in Gov. Gavin Newsom’s 2020 Grasp Plan for Early Studying and Care. But it surely has gained urgency due to the phase-in by 2025 of transitional kindergarten for all 4-year-olds plus plans to develop state-funded pre-kindergarten.

    The Palo Alto primarily based Studying Coverage Institute initiatives between 12,000 and 15,000 lecturers shall be wanted to fill transitional kindergarten positions, and but solely about 8,000 new lecturers – about a mean of 1,000 lecturers per grade – have yearly been becoming a member of the educating workforce by incomes the present TK-8 “a number of topic” credential.

    Hanna Melnick of the institute mentioned one supply of TK lecturers might be the estimated 29,000 baby care lecturers in California who already a maintain bachelor’s diploma, one of many conditions of the brand new credential; a few of these might be ladies of coloration who workers many child-care facilities.

    One other supply might be elementary faculty lecturers who need to train TK, with its smaller class sizes, in the event that they take an extra 24 items of school programs on early baby improvement, which might additionally qualify them for the brand new PK-3 Early Childhood Schooling Educating Credential, as it is going to be formally known as. As of August 2023, TK lecturers who’ve a a number of topic credential can even must have the extra credit to ensure that their districts to obtain state funding for college students in these school rooms.

    Beside filling vacancies, the brand new credential would enhance studying, mentioned Deborah Stipek, former dean of the Stanford Graduate Faculty of Schooling and an early childhood authority who served on the governor’s job drive.

    California is certainly one of few states within the nation that hasn’t had a educating credential centered on younger kids and one of many few through which most lecturers obtain their credential in a one-year program after incomes a bachelor’s diploma. “As dean of Stanford for 12 years, I used to be conscious of the constraints to cram instruction by way of a a number of topic credential overlaying 3 to 13-year olds,” she mentioned. “You possibly can’t think about how irritating that’s.”

    It’s necessary that early schooling lecturers absolutely perceive the neuroscience and emotional development of younger kids and that instruction in math, science and studying from grade to grade monitor their improvement, she mentioned.

    Third grade is essential in literacy improvement; the flexibility to learn at grade degree is a powerful indicator of future success at school. And but solely 48.54% of all third graders in California met or exceeded requirements in English language arts in 2019, the final yr earlier than the pandemic. Solely 37% of low-income college students, 31% of Black college students and 38.5% Hispanic college students have been studying at grade degree.

    Battle over literacy requirements

    Final October, the Legislature determined that one reply to this drawback is to revamp how lecturers pursuing a a number of topic credential are instructed to show studying in instructor preparation packages. Senate Invoice 488 arrange a 4-year plan to finish the state’s Studying Instruction Competence Evaluation or RICA, a a number of alternative and quick reply take a look at with a low cross fee that many lecturers revile as a poor technique of measuring tutorial competence (see readers’ feedback to this EdSource article). Changing it could be a literacy efficiency evaluation that every one a number of topic credential seekers should cross. In an effort to decide what the evaluation would measure, the invoice charged the credentialing fee with revising the instructor efficiency expectations for educating studying. A 27-member working group is predicted to finish a draft of those expectations this fall.

    Decoding Dyslexia CA and different advocates of reforming how studying is taught have hailed the passage of SB 488 however questioned whether or not it could apply to the PK-3 credential. After studying the proposal for the brand new credential the fee would think about, Sen. Susan Rubio, D-Baldwin Park, the sponsor of the laws, and Assemblyperson Patrick O’Donnell, D-Lengthy Seaside, concluded that it wouldn’t and opposed it in a June 13 letter to the fee.

    “Establishing a brand new a number of topic credential administratively, for the very grades through which studying instruction competence is a very powerful, signifies that not one of the protections within the legislation would apply,” they wrote in a June 13 letter, urging the fee to not proceed with the brand new credential.

    Others expressed opposition or instructed alternate options.

    “California has a literacy disaster and claims to be centered on getting all youngsters studying by third grade. As a substitute, this new PK-3 ECE credential paves the best way for lecturers in Ok-3 school rooms who haven’t been skilled in the right way to train studying. It’s not honest to lecturers and it’s not honest to youngsters,” mentioned Lori DePole, co-state director of Decoding Dyslexia CA.

    In a written remark, Rachel Hurd, a San Ramon Unified board member, instructed that the fee give attention to the rapid want, a credential for transitional kindergarten and pre-kindergarten, and postpone a kindergarten to threerd grade credential. “As a state, we can’t let a instructor scarcity permit us to threat decreasing the bar for any of our college students. Additional, setting lecturers up for failure is the worst factor for instructor retention,” she wrote.

    The California Academics Affiliation instructed making a PK-3 strand inside the multisubject credential and never a separate credential. “We worth coherence throughout credentials and oppose any effort to fragment the educating area,” it said. The Affiliation of California Faculty Directors favored exempting skilled baby care lecturers who certified for an expedited PK-3 credential from taking the efficiency evaluation.

    However the proposed PK-3 credential additionally was enthusiastically supported by child-care advocates and common transitional kindergarten supporters, together with Kidango, the biggest pre-school supplier within the Bay Space, and Early Edge California.

    In response to the feedback, the fee workers revised its proposal 4 days earlier than its June 15 assembly. It emphasised that subject material necessities for PK-3 instructor preparation packages embrace rigorous age-appropriate instruction in math, English language arts together with the educating of studying, dyslexia and English Language Improvement. Candidates additionally ought to cross RICA or “another Literacy Efficiency Evaluation developed in response to SB 488.”

    However the revision additionally mentioned that instructor prep packages might develop their very own literacy efficiency evaluation, technically already permitted underneath state legislation, so long as the fee accredited it. This feature angered literacy reformers like Todd Collins, a Palo Alto Unified board member and organizer of the California Studying Coalition, who known as it an ”end-run round SB 488.”

    After a prolonged dialogue and plenty of public feedback, commissioners adopted the revised PK-3 proposal whereas specifying that studying requirements adopted underneath SB 488 would absolutely apply. Commissioners clarified that any different literacy efficiency evaluation proposed by a instructor preparation program should show it is going to be as dependable and legitimate as a state evaluation – a excessive bar that might be troublesome to attain, and uncommon, mentioned Mary Vixie Sandy, the fee’s govt director.

    After the vote, DePole of Decoding Dyxlexia mentioned she was “inspired” that the fee dedicated to together with the brand new SB 488 literacy necessities within the new credential pathway and apply a brand new efficiency evaluation to each a number of topic and PK-3 credential candidates.

    Stipek urged the fee to undertake the proposal, which she mentioned struck the precise steadiness between a give attention to baby improvement and rigorous coaching in math and literacy instruction. “It’s nearly as good as it’s going to get now. It’s time to go to the following step,” she mentioned.

    The following step shall be for the fee workers to draft laws, incorporating the fee’s suggestions for requirements and efficiency expectations, after which start a months-long public remark and revision course of. Universities and different credentialing packages would start providing credential programs for the PK-3 credential in fall 2023.

    In the meantime, the workgroup for implementing SB 488 will proceed drafting new literacy requirements and instructor efficiency expectations towards the purpose of changing RICA with a efficiency evaluation beginning July 2025.

    Supporters of SB 488 hope that the mix of stronger, research-based requirements and the efficiency evaluation will rework studying instruction statewide. Sandy is optimistic.

    “Efficiency assessments drive studying extra powerfully than standardized exams,” she mentioned.

    To get extra studies like this one, click on right here to join EdSource’s no-cost each day e mail on newest developments in schooling.

  • Bilingual training helped this 2nd grade classroom thrive after pandemic setbacks
    Bilingual Education

    Bilingual training helped this 2nd grade classroom thrive after pandemic setbacks

    Leer este reporte en español.

    OVERLAND, Mo. — On a latest morning in trainer Geri Ross’s classroom at Marion Elementary Faculty, second graders sat at clusters of desks, singing songs and studying tales in Spanish.

    The partitions had been adorned with colourful posters depicting letter sounds, math ideas and vocabulary in each English and Spanish. After lunch, Ross switched a lightweight on the entrance of the room from crimson to blue and sang a brand new call-and-response track with the scholars.

    “Welcome all, to the category in English,” the scholars sang. “Goodbye Spanish. Howdy to English.”

    The scholars have spent the previous faculty 12 months in a pilot class that’s testing bilingual training within the Ritenour Faculty District.

    Simply throughout the river in Illinois, colleges are required to supply bilingual training in some lecture rooms. However Missouri colleges have discovered it tough to begin related applications. As educators seek for methods to assist college students who had been disproportionately impacted by the pandemic, Ritenour leaders say its pilot class has had a massively constructive impact on college students’ confidence and their take a look at scores.

    Moderately than being pulled out of sophistication to deal with English, the scholars work on their math, studying and writing abilities in Spanish within the morning, then be taught those self same topics in English within the afternoon. On this class, even college students who’re new to the nation can soar proper into their coursework, as an alternative of ready till their English improves.

    Bilingual training helped this 2nd grade classroom thrive after pandemic setbacks
    Geri Ross, a bilingual second grade trainer at Marion Elementary Faculty, offers instruction in Spanish on Could 12 on the faculty in Overland. Brian Munoz/St. Louis Public Radio

    In a break between class, Ross ticked off studying positive aspects that may make most educators’ jaws drop. In math, all of her college students began the college 12 months “beneath primary;” two semesters later, 70% are at or above district requirements. Greater than half the category was studying beneath grade degree in the beginning of the 12 months. Now, 1 in 5 college students within the class has improved their studying by two or extra grade ranges.

    The varsity’s principal, Bilal Ewing, stated Ross is an excellent trainer, however he thinks the format of the category was an enormous a part of the success. “The outcomes that she obtained with this class outpaced even the outcomes that she had proven along with her regular classroom the earlier 12 months, so there must be one thing within the methodology,” he stated.

    That is the primary 12 months the Ritenour Faculty District has provided a category like this, and it occurred as a result of Ross pushed for it. She was raised bilingually; her mom spoke along with her in Spanish rising up, although she will not be a local Spanish speaker. Ross tells her college students their bilingualism is a superpower.

    After simply three years as a trainer, Ross’ fame precedes her within the district. Directors have seen her distinctive skill to attach along with her college students and their mother and father, whereas additionally producing what Ewing known as “loopy” tutorial outcomes. She additionally works to acknowledge her college students’ cultural heritage, by celebrating every of their house international locations throughout Hispanic Heritage month and conserving in common contact with mother and father on WhatsApp.

    However her exceptionalism can also be an instance of the challenges in implementing a program like this — whereas Ritenour leaders want they may add extra bilingual courses, academics like Ross are laborious to come back by.

    Bilal Ewing, the principal at Marion Elementary School, listens in to students conversing at lunch
    Bilal Ewing, the principal at Marion Elementary Faculty, listens in to college students conversing at lunch on Could 12 on the faculty in Overland. Take a look at scores within the primarily Spanish-speaking inhabitants have risen considerably because the implementation of the second grade transitional bilingual classroom. Brian Munoz/St. Louis Public Radio

     

    Obstacles to enlargement

    In St. Louis, there’s a scarcity of academics who’ve Missouri’s English Language Learner Certification. It’s even more durable to seek out bilingual academics with the certification, stated Julie Hahn, Ritenour’s assistant superintendent of pupil companies.

    “We simply don’t have the individuals,” Hahn stated. “It’s a must to have individuals with ardour. They must have a real understanding of language acquisition and actually wish to do that explicit job, as a result of it’s laborious.”

    Lack of employees is one cause this educating mannequin is comparatively uncommon in St. Louis. Some constitution and personal colleges within the area provide instruction in different languages, just like the St. Louis Language Immersion Faculty. However in contrast to the Ritenour class, these colleges are sometimes geared towards each native English audio system and audio system of different languages.

    And whereas some public faculty college students in Carthage and Kansas Metropolis, Missouri, are in a position to take bilingual courses, it’s “difficult to create these applications and do them very well,” stated College of Missouri affiliate professor Lisa Dorner.

    A district has to have the proper mixture of pupil demographics that may be well-served by this mannequin, together with extremely expert academics and assets to implement this system equitably.

    “In lots of our districts, we don’t essentially have excessive numbers of scholars from the identical language group,” stated Dorner, who research academic coverage and immigrant childhoods.

    The Ritenour district has a big focus of Spanish-speaking households, and at Marion Elementary, practically a 3rd of the scholars converse Spanish.

    The Ritenour Administrative Center on Wednesday, March 2, 2022, in Overland, Mo.
    The Ritenour Administrative Middle on Wednesday, March 2, 2022, in Overland, Mo. Brian Munoz/St. Louis Public Radio

    However in St. Louis Public Colleges, college students converse greater than 50 languages. In addition they have a various vary of academic experiences earlier than coming to the district, which may imply this mannequin wouldn’t be finest for them. As a substitute, the district tries to tailor its program to fulfill the wants of every particular person language learner, stated Alla Gonzalez Del Castillo, director of the ESOL Bilingual Migrant Program in St. Louis Public Colleges.

    “Whereas in our district we don’t have bilingual programming, we do encourage our academics to permit college students to make use of their first language, or to create alternatives the place they may use their first language,” Gonzalez Del Castillo stated. “There are numerous totally different applications that may be good for English language learners, however you actually need to have a look at the context and see what’s finest for the learners in that district.”

     

    Illinois’ lengthy historical past

    In contrast to Missouri, colleges in Illinois are required to supply some type of bilingual instruction if they’ve greater than 20 college students in a single faculty who’re studying English and converse the identical language at house. That has been state regulation because the 1970’s.

    Within the Metro East, the Collinsville Faculty District first started educating bilingual courses for kindergarten college students in 2008 and has since expanded to a number of grade ranges throughout a number of buildings.

    “Again once I was in class, it was extra just like the outdated sink or swim that you just simply put them within the classroom,” stated Carla Cruise, the district’s English Learner Coordinator. “They be taught English as a result of that’s the one factor that was being taught. However analysis has proven that when you join the concepts and the ideas and the talents with their native language, they really be taught extra. “

    Because the program’s launch, lots of of children have taken the bilingual courses. This system has not solely boosted tutorial outcomes, Cruise stated, it’s additionally fostered a more in-depth relationship with the neighborhood.

    “We have now such a big inhabitants that I believe due to the help and the progress that we’re making, the households are pleased right here,” Cruise stated. “And the phrase will get out to different members of the family and so they typically relocate from different areas to our district.”

    There’s a particular endorsement for Illinois academics in bilingual training, an possibility not out there to Missouri academics. Cruise stated the state additionally helps make it simpler to seek out academics for this system by giving them 5 years to show whereas ending their licensing necessities.

    David Medina Hernandez and Angie Quiles Rivera, both 8, work on Spanish phonetics
    David Medina Hernandez and Angie Quiles Rivera, each 8, work on Spanish phonetics on Could 12 at Marion Elementary Faculty. Brian Munoz/St. Louis Public Radio

     

    Subsequent steps

    For the second graders in Ross’ class, this has been a particular 12 months. After practically two years of pandemic-related disruptions, this was their first full 12 months of in-person studying.

    Eight-year-old Jeri Urbina Morales moved to St. Louis from Mexico along with his household two years in the past and spent his first faculty 12 months within the U.S. studying nearly.

    His mom, Carmen Morales Mora, stated she usually discovered him tuning out of sophistication final 12 months due to the language barrier.

    “It was actually tough when it was digital as a result of he couldn’t focus throughout class,” Morales Mora stated in Spanish. “He wouldn’t listen as a result of he stated he didn’t perceive, and he grew to become hopeless.”

    Now, Jeri appears ahead to his courses, particularly artwork, math and studying. He stated he’s improved so much in English and is pals with a lot of his classmates. “After I develop up, being bilingual will assist me be a physician,” Jeri wrote for a latest class task.

    However subsequent 12 months, he and his classmates will enter conventional third grade courses taught in English. They will nonetheless obtain help from language specialists, however their class expertise gained’t be bilingual prefer it was this 12 months.

    A sign encouraging bilingualism hands in Geri Ross’ second grade classroom
    An indication encouraging bilingualism palms in Geri Ross’ second grade classroom on Could 12 at Marion Elementary Faculty in Overland. In accordance with the U.S. Census Bureau, solely 20% of Individuals can converse in two or extra languages, as in comparison with practically half of European residents. Brian Munoz/St. Louis Public Radio

    Jeri stated he feels prepared to make use of English extra usually in class subsequent 12 months, however district officers acknowledge that’s not best.

    “I do assume that’s one among our challenges: Now what?” stated Hahn, the Ritenour administrator. “Ideally, we’d have a continuum of helps all through their education, and we would not have the capability presently to do this.”

    Hahn stated Ritenour wants a district-wide plan to ensure it’s persevering with to have a good time and worth multilingual college students and assist them develop tutorial abilities of their first language.

    “Ideally, a program would undergo fifth grade after which in center faculty, you’d have the chance to take possibly your authorities courses in Spanish, possibly your science can be in English, possibly your math can be in Spanish,” stated Dorner, of the College of Missouri. “So you’d nonetheless proceed that bilingual method over time.”

    For her half, Ross will likely be educating one other bilingual class subsequent 12 months — this time with first graders. The district hopes to catch youngsters earlier to present them the additional advantage of bilingual training.

    Leer este reporte en español. Brian Munoz contributed to this report. Comply with Kate on Twitter: @KGrumke

  • A Texas law could stop schools from teaching how these children were forced to stay in first grade for 3 years
    Teaching

    A Texas law could stop schools from teaching how these children were forced to stay in first grade for 3 years

    Enrique Alemán Jr., 50, has spent the past few years talking with numerous students in Texas and across the United States about how his mother and other Mexican American children in Driscoll, Texas, were treated in the 1950s by school officials who claimed they couldn’t speak or understand English.

    “I think it’s very bad for students of all races to not talk about the uncomfortable aspects of our history. And it’s especially bad for Latino youth to not understand that Texas has been a violent, racist, discriminatory place to live,” Alemán Jr. told CNN.

    Critical race theory has become a social and political lightning rod. This is how we got here

    HB3979 states that social studies teachers can’t “require” or include in their courses, the concept that “one race or sex is inherently superior to another race or sex” or the concept that “an individual, by virtue of the individual’s race or sex, is inherently racist, sexist or oppressive, whether consciously or unconsciously.”

    It also notes that “a teacher may not be compelled to discuss a particular current event or widely debated and currently controversial issue of public policy or social affairs.” Teachers, according to the bill, also can’t require or give extra credit for a student’s political activism.

    The legislation proposed by Senate Republicans, SB3, intends to extend the restrictions to all teachers, regardless of subject or grade level.

    Mexican American children sued their school and won

    In 1955, a group of children and their parents sued the Driscoll Consolidated Independent School District for placing Mexican American children in the first grade for a period of three years solely because they were of Mexican descent, according to the federal lawsuit.

    The school district in Driscoll, a town of nearly 800 people about two hours south of San Antonio, said in court that students were only placed in separate classrooms because of their lack of English proficiency. School officials said it deprived other students from teachers’ attention and instruction, and not because of their country of origin, court documents show.

    After several students appeared in court to testify that they were fluent in English, US District Judge James V. Allred ruled in 1957 that it was unreasonable to place students in separate classrooms based their race or origin.
    Lupe Alemán was a fourth generation Texan and was fluent in English when she and her sisters enrolled in first grade at a Driscoll, Texas, school.

    CNN reached out to the current superintendent and board members of the Driscoll Independent School District for comment multiple times.

    Alemán Jr. was about 10 years old when he picked up his mother’s high school yearbook and his mother shared two details of her life that, at the time, he didn’t comprehend.

    As a young girl in Driscoll, Lupe Alemán was part of a court case, and by the time she graduated high school, she was nearly 21 years old, Alemán Jr. says his mother told him.

    It was more than two decades later that Alemán Jr. realized what his mother was referring to.

    Alemán Jr. was 33 years old when he saw a documentary on TV about Hector P. Garcia, a Texas civil rights advocate who founded the American G.I. Forum, a group that helped Mexican American veterans fight discrimination. The documentary recounts Garcia’s life and activism, including how the group filed a federal lawsuit in the mid-1950s against the school district in Driscoll.
    Lupe Alemán was 20 years when she graduated high school in Bishop, Texas, her son says. She was the school's first Mexican American homecoming queen.

    “I immediately had a flashback and remembered what my mother told me,” he said.

    His mother, who was born in Driscoll, lived there until she was a young adult and would have been about 9 years old when the lawsuit was filed, Alemán Jr. said.

    But he couldn’t just pick up the phone and ask his mother about the case. His mom had died a few months before he watched the documentary, he said.

    “I was amazed and I was upset,” Alemán Jr. said, adding that his mother and two of his aunts testified in court. “I didn’t understand why nobody ever talked about it.”

    As Alemán Jr. continued his education and he focused his research on the inequities that Black and brown students face in school, he couldn’t forget about his family’s history.

    In 2012, he traveled across Texas to meet several of the children who testified along with his mother for the Hernandez v Driscoll CISD case and produced a documentary called “Stolen Education.”

    He learned that some were punished for speaking Spanish in school or had seen classmates being paddled by teachers. Some graduated high school and others dropped out of school to work or join the military, he said.

    They went on with their lives, Alemán Jr. says, but “there’s still something in them that feels like they didn’t reach their full potential because of the way that they started out.”

    Enrique Alemán Jr., center, stands next to his parents Lupe and Enrique Alemán Sr. during his 1997 graduation from Columbia University in New York City.

    There’s been a long fight for ethnic studies in Texas

    Educators and advocates say they are concerned the new law will have negative implications for the decades-long effort to make the history being taught in Texas schools more inclusive.

    More than 52% of the 5.3 million children enrolled in kindergarten to 12th grade across Texas in the last school year were Hispanic or Latino, Texas Education Agency (TEA) data shows.

    Yet, curriculum standards to teach Mexican American studies, only as an elective high school course, were only approved in 2018 after years of debate.

    Sonia Hernandez, an associate professor of history at Texas A&M University, who works with the nonprofit Refusing to Forget to shine light on the killings of Mexican Americans by Texas Rangers in the 1910s and 1920s, said she was saddened to see that an “unfounded idea” could become a set back for advocates and educators in the state.

    “Just so many years of great effort are being pushed aside because of the unfounded idea that if we talk about issues of racial inequality, if we talk about how certain groups of people were marginalized and were treated as second- class citizens — even if they were in fact US citizens — that would lead to some kind of unpatriotic history,” Hernandez said.

    “We are doing our students a disservice, we are telling them that we think they’re not intellectually equipped to understand a complex history of their own country,” she added.

    Texas Senate advances bill to restrict how race, nation's history is taught in schools
    For Tony Diaz, an author and activist, the new law and efforts around the “critical race theory” legislation echoes the sentiment behind the Arizona law that banned Mexican American studies in public schools about a decade ago.

    “Those same tendencies are back in a new form,” said Diaz, who campaigned against the ban in Arizona schools by launching Librotraficante, a caravan to take books banned under the same law to Arizona.

    The Texas law intends to intimidate teachers, Diaz says, and it will take similar “very profound grassroots campaign” to overturn it.

    Weeks before the new law goes into effect, it’s still unclear how schools will implement it. The TEA has not yet issued guidance for schools and the agency hasn’t yet responded to CNN’s request for comment.

    Angela Valenzuela, an education policy professor at the University of Texas, said the law doesn’t address how schools will implement or enforce it.

    “I think ultimately it is intended to create division at the grassroots level to empower parents that feel their children are being hurt by either teaching concepts like white supremacy, white privilege, the history of racism and slavery,” Valenzuela said.

    For Alemán Jr., who is now a Lillian Radford endowed professor of education at Trinity University and teachers classes for education leaders, the educational system in the state has in part “never wanted Latinos, African Americans and women to even know their own part” in history.

    Learning what happened to his mother and other Mexican American children in Driscoll changed the purpose of Alemán’s work. It also made him feel close to his mom even decades after she passed away.

    It’s empowering to know where you come from and that feeling, he says, it’s something he hopes more Latinos and students of color can feel while they are in school.